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The Cottage October/Samhain Issue
Monthly Deity


The Holly King/ The Oak King

The Holly King and the Oak King are two sacrificial Gods who, in the manner of such deities, are two aspects of the same being. The Holly King represents the waning year, and battles the Oak King at Midsummer (probably once at Bealtaine) for rulership. Likewise, the Oak King is the God of the waxing year, and battles with the Holly King at Yule (probably once at Samhain) for the same honor.

The Oak King

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The Oak King, the Lord of the Greenwood and golden twin of the waxing year, rules from Midwinter to Midsummer. At Midwinter, he goes to battle with his twin, the Holly King, for the favor of the Goddess. He slays the Holly King, who goes to rest in Caer Arianrhod until they do battle again at Midsummer. The Oak King and Holly King are mortal enemies at Midsummer and Midwinter, but they are two sides of a whole. Neither could exist without the other.



The Oak King

Represents: Growth, Expansion

Gods: Jupiter (Roman god of light and sky)

Janus (Roman god of planting, marriage, birth, and other types of beginnings)

Dagda (Irish-Celtic god of the earth)

Frey (Norse fertility god)

Pan (Greek god of fertility, unbridled male sexuality and carnal desire)

Colors: Red, green, yellow, purple

Plant: Oak, mistletoe

Bird: Robin

Associated myths: Robin Hood, King Arthur, Gawain (when he meets the Green Knight), Jesus, Balder, Green Man

THE HOLLY KING

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The Holly King, the Lord of the Winterwood and darksome twin of the waning year, rules from Midsummer to Midwinter. At Midsummer, he goes to battle with his twin, the Oak King, for the favor of the Goddess. He slays the Oak King, who goes to rest in Caer Arianrhod until they do battle again at Midsummer.

The Holly King

Represents: Withdrawal, lessons, life, rest

Gods: Saturn (Roman agricultural god)

Cronos (Greek god, also known as Father Time)

Father Ice/Grandfather Frost (Russian winter god)

Odin/Wotan (Scandinavian/Teutonic All-Father who rides the sky on an eight-legged horse)

The Tomte (a Norse Land Spirit known for giving gifts to children at this time of year)

Thor (Norse sky god who rides the sky in a chariot drawn by goats)

Color: Black, Red, Green, Gold

Plant: Holly

Bird: Wren

Associated myths: Santa Claus in all his variations, the Green Knight from Arthurian legend, Mordred (who struck down King Arthur), St. John, Corn King, Bran the Blessed Samhain is the night when the Old King dies, and the Crone Goddess mourns him greatly during the next six weeks.